The natural reserve of “Delta de l’Ebre” is located at the river mouth of river Ebre, in the province of Tarragona, between the regions of Montsia and Baix Ebre, in the southernmost part of Catalonia. The last years the park has got some distinctions.
- It was declared Natural Reserve in August 1983 and expanded in 1986.
- It was included into the Plan of Areas of Natural Interest of Catalonia
- Declared Special Protection Area of Birds
- Into the list of Wetlands of International Importance of the Ramsar Convention.
The Ebre River is the mightiest river of Iberian Peninsula, and it’s the responsible of this environment, getting sediments along his way to deposit it here. These sediments have created a surface of more than 320Km2, where a lot of habitats have been formed.
The shape of the Delta it’s like an arrow that gets into the sea almost 22km.Creating the second biggest Delta of the Mediterranean Sea after of the Delta of Nile. The “Delta de l’Ebre” it’s the Catalonia most important wetland, and one of the most important of occidental Europe.
BIRDS AND VEGETATION
The “Delta de l’Ebre” it’s internationally very important for a lot of plants and birds. Almost 95 bird species nidify here, whereas many others hibernate, rest, and feed themselves during their migrations. The Delta hosts approximately 325 bird species from the 600 existents in Europe.
The Delta has a typically Mediterranean climate, with moderate temperatures (average temperature 17ºC) and a high humidity levels, with scarce precipitations, usually like storms. Summer here is dry whereas spring and autumn are the seasons with the most rainfall. The most characteristic meteorological phenomenon is the wind, which is usually persistent, and very often, so strong
The southern part of “Delta de l’Ebre” it's composed for two relatively large lagoons: The “Tancada” and the “Encanyissada” lagoon. The first one, the “Tancada”which in Catalan means closed, has this name because has no direct natural communication with the sea; however, it’s connected with the bay through a man-made irrigation ditches and canals
The other one lagoon, the “Encanyissada” is the one closest to the village of Sant Carles de la Rapita, as well as the largest of all the lagoons in the Delta. This one it communicates naturally with the Alfaques Bay.
Throughout the lagoons, the presence of macrophytes is vital, not only because they offer protection for fish against the heat and predators, but also because they constitute a source of food of utmost importance for aquatic birds. The conservation of macrophytes has become an essential issue since the impact of a variety of phytosanitary products used in local crops has caused this kind of submerged vegetation to considerably decrease in numbers in some of the lagoons